Monday, September 10, 2007


Explain the following:
1. Skin functions as an accessory excretory organ.
2. Micturtion is a reflex process, but is under some voluntary control.
3. Different parts of a nephron participate in different ways in the formation of urine.

Distinguish between:

1. Sweat and Sebum
2. Proximal and Distal convoluted tubule
3. Ascending and descending limbs of loop of Henle.
4. Tubular reabsorbtion and Tubular secretion
5. Cortical and Juxtamedullary nephron.

Short answer type questions

1. What is the osmolarity of human blood?
2. In which three forms animal excrete excess of nitrogen?
3. In which organ urea is produced
4. What constitute the malpighian corpuscles?
5. What are podocytes?
6. Expand GFR, What is the value of GFR per minute and per day?
7. Which enzyme cells of JGA secrete?
8. Name the hormone secreted by atrial wall which inhibits the secretion of rennin from JGA?
9 Write full form of RAAS?
10 What is the function of enzyme rennin?
11 What is meant by Micturtion?

Long answer questions

1. Describe the structure of nephron with a labeled diagram.
2. Describe the role of ADH and counter current systems in forming hypertonic urine.
3. What happens to the role of the kidney filtrate in Descending loop of Henle & Collective tubules in humans?
4. Why is glomerular filtrate hypertonic and hypotonic in descending and ascending limb of loop of Henle respectively? What is the effect of ADH on collecting tubules?
5. How does the PCT of the nephron contribute in homeostasis?
6. .Explain the structure of kidney with the help of neat and labeled diagram.
7. What is the mechanism that provides auto regulation of glomerular filtrate?
8. Name the two groups of nephron on the basis of their position in the kidney. How are they ascending limb of different from each other?
9. Draw a labeled sketch of human urinary system with its associated blood vessels.
10. Both the thin and thick segments of the ascending loop of Henle transport NaCl out to the interstitial fluid. What is the difference in their respective mode of transport?
11. What is the counter current system? Name two such systems associated with excretory system and state their functions.
12. Explain the structure of glomerular filtration membrane. Give the pressures that favours and opposite filtration through membrane
13. With the help of flow chart explain regulation of kidney functions by RAAS.
14. With the help of flow chart explain regulation of kidney functions by ADH.


1. Explain the initiation of muscle contraction. What is the role of sarcoplasmic reticulum, Myosin head and F actin filament during contraction?
2. Name the heaviest and longest bone in the human body?
3. Why does thinning of bones usually start occurring in human females at about 50 years of age?
4. What is the total number of bones present in the left pectoral girdle and left arm in human?
5. How many pairs of ribs are present in men? How do you categories these on the basis of their attachment to the back bone?
6. Trace the events in the muscle fibre from the time it receives the impulse through the neuro muscular junctions up to the contractile process.
7. Explain molecular structure of actin and myosin filament?
8. Draw neat and labeled diagram of contractile unit of muscle fibre?
9. Explain the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction.
10. What is the role of Calcium ions in the contraction of muscle?
11. Name the bones which form the basin – shaped pelvis
12. Give one example of fibrous joint
13. Name the kind of joint in our knee and elbow
14. Name the oxygen storing pigment present in the muscles
15. What is the total number of bones in arms
16. Which bone support shank of the legs
17. Name the triangular bone which forms the knee cap
18. How many vertebras present in the vertebral column? Give their names according to location and number.
19. Name the bones of the pectoral girdle and the cavity in which head of humerus articulates
20. Name the bones of the pelvic girdle and the cavity head of femur fits
21. Write the first vertebrae of vertebral column. How does it articulate with the skull?

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